Two phases of investigation by P Jones of SCAU, adjacent to areas previously investigated in 2011 (SyAC 98, 253). No features of archaeological interest were revealed during soil removal to the west of the ‘Mesolithic hollow’ excavated in 2005 (SyAC 94, 370). There would appear to have been relatively little use of this area during the Mesolithic period, but later Bronze Age to Early Iron Age occupation was evident from redeposited material within a near-shore fluvial deposit of a watercourse.
Excavation by T Munnery of SCAU. The earliest features revealed were a small number of tree-throw hollows of Mesolithic and Bronze Age date, a similarly dated cremation that may have been originally within an organic container and two Bronze Age pits. An early medieval trackway and field system were revealed that were aligned to the western edge of a partially exposed palaeochannel. A post-built structure was carefully placed next to the trackway in the corner of a former field defined by a series of boundary ditches.
Evaluation and excavation by C Ellis of COT followed initial evaluation of the site by AOC in 2006 (SyAC 94, 368). The work revealed that large parts of the site had been subject to extensive modern disturbance but excavation in two areas revealed evidence of activity from the Mesolithic, Neolithic/Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman, medieval and post-medieval periods. The Mesolithic was represented by residual worked flint artefacts from later features.
Evaluation by A Thorne of ASE identified several ditches, probably part of the medieval and post-medieval field systems recorded on previous investigations nearby (SyAC 95, 309; 92, 279). No discrete features were recorded and only a few sherds of medieval pottery were recovered.
Evaluation by G Potter of CA produced a few pieces of medieval pottery, reflecting general medieval activity, but no features of archaeological interest.
Evaluation by K Krawiec for ASE confirmed the presence of the former castle moat, although the edge of the moat was not observed. A borehole survey confirmed that 19th century backfill made up a large proportion of the material infilling the moat, although the primary fills included an in-situ organic deposit. The lower deposits did not yield reliable material for dating, but a layer of leaf litter returned a date of 1670 cal AD to post-1950 cal AD (280-10 cal BP).
An archaeological evaluation by G Anelay of WSA revealed two tree-throw hollows and a scattering of medieval to modern artefacts, but no features of archaeological interest.
Evaluation by T Munnery of SCAU revealed residual Mesolithic and Neolithic flintwork, a number of probable Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age ditches and medieval or post-medieval quarry/dene holes. The character of the ditches suggests they form part of a field system rather than a settlement enclosure.
Evaluation and subsequent excavation by G Dawkes of ASE along the c17km route, from Buckland Pumping Station in the west to the Outwood Reservoir in the east. Two sites of particular archaeological significance were identified: a prehistoric and Roman site in the vicinity of Buckland village, immediately south of the A25, and a medieval site located to the north of Buckland, adjacent to Glebe House on Rectory Lane.
Evaluation by J Aaronson of CA revealed two previously unidentified phases of castle development including part of a substantial footing within a deep-sided cut of 13th century date and a second phase represented by wall bases constructed from rough Reigate stone and chalk blocks. The presence of a brick hearth within the body of one of these walls suggests a later 14th or 15th century date, pre-dating the standing remains and lying to the south of the previously understood limits of the castle.