Evaluation and subsequent excavation by G Dawkes of ASE along the c17km route, from Buckland Pumping Station in the west to the Outwood Reservoir in the east. Two sites of particular archaeological significance were identified: a prehistoric and Roman site in the vicinity of Buckland village, immediately south of the A25, and a medieval site located to the north of Buckland, adjacent to Glebe House on Rectory Lane.
Watching brief by W Weller of SCAU revealed evidence of settlement activity from the Late Bronze Age to the Late Roman period, including a storage pit of a 1st century AD date and possible boundary ditches that may relate to the Romano-British settlement sites excavated in the 1930s to the south of the school.
Strip, map and sample by J Wright of COT revealed two pits and two linear features, and recovered a small quantity of probable Mesolithic flint from the top of the natural substrate. One of the pits was similar to examples investigated in an adjoining area in 2011 thought likely to be tree-throw hollows resulting from tree clearance in the Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age. The second pit is also likely to be the remains of a tree-throw hollow but probably of recent origin.
Evaluation and excavation by I Hogg of ASE following evaluation and a geophysical survey undertaken by WA in 2011 and 2012. Intense activity in the Late Bronze Age was recorded in two isolated pockets of the site. The corner of a rectilinear enclosure was recorded close to an area of pitting, probably the remains of quarrying and grain storage, although the main focus of the Bronze Age activity was in the east of the site where 147 postholes provided evidence for seven or eight post-built structures.
Evaluation by T Munnery of SCAU. Medieval features comprising pits, postholes, a well and a possible buried soil were revealed. Two of the features and the buried soil may be as early as the late 12th or early 13th century. A relatively large number of struck flints, mostly of Mesolithic but also Neolithic date were recovered, mostly from one location in a limited-sized test pit. Sherds of Roman and Saxon pottery recovered are likely to be residual and unlikely to indicate that significant evidence from these periods is present on the site.
Strip, map and sample by H Nicholls of ASE. A small assemblage of unstratified/residual Mesolithic to Early Neolithic flintwork, a single pit of Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age date, and a medieval ditch were revealed. The pit contained three, possibly four, partially complete pottery vessels, which may have been deposited in semi-complete states.
Test pitting by C Hayward of SyAS. Nineteen test pits were excavated in a central band of the parish with two located in Little Bookham. Evidence of early medieval activity was recorded in Church Street with finds of medieval pottery clustered around the church. Sherds of Roman pottery were found in two areas to the east and north-east of the church and Bronze Age pottery and struck flint were recorded from a Little Bookham pit.
Strip, map and record excavation by A Simmonds of OA revealed a pit and gully dating from the Early Bronze Age and 94 pits that were attributed to the Middle Bronze Age/Early Iron Age. The remains were dominated by shallow pits, arranged into a northern group of fairly widely scattered, discrete pits and a more densely concentrated group of features cut into a chalk outcrop at the southern end of the site. Some of the pits had clearly defined, deliberately cut edges but others were amorphous and are likely to have been natural in origin, probably representing tree-throw holes.
Evaluation by T Black of OA. Evidence of activity of several periods was found, mostly at the north end of the site. A buried soil covering at least 40m2 was found on the west side of the site that contained a mixture of struck flints of Mesolithic and Bronze Age date. The presence of flints of two dates in the same layer suggests this may have been a colluvial layer containing material derived from further upslope. To the east, a small pit contained undiagnostic struck flints that may be of earlier prehistoric date.
Evaluation by T Munnery of SCAU. The earliest material was Late Upper Palaeolithic/Mesolithic and Mesolithic/Neolithic flintwork from later features and overburden although residual, may originate from an occupation site or sites nearby. The most concentrated phase of activity was of Bronze Age, especially Late Bronze Age, date. Pits and ditches and a buried subsoil indicate the utilisation of the site for settlement.