Runfold Quarry, Farnham

Excavation and watching brief by R Lambert of SCAU during mineral extraction works. The initial watching brief during site-stripping revealed more extensive activity than expected, including field boundaries, enclosure ditches, roundhouse ring gullies, and numerous pits, postholes and waterholes, apparently belonging to the later Iron Age and early Roman periods. The main phase of excavation divided the site into three areas -- B, C and X. Area B showed Late Iron Age--early Roman period settlement activity in the form of ditches, pits, postholes, and waterholes. Finds of note included the complete lower stone of a rotary quern and a copper-alloy brooch and toggle fastening, which may have been placed deposits. Area C revealed a number of roundhouse ring gullies set within enclosure ditches, surrounded by pits and waterholes. These features dated mainly to the earlier Roman period up to the end of the 1st century, indicating continuity in lifestyle from the Late Iron Age period. Area X revealed further Iron Age and Roman pits and ditches, and some of the material present indicated industrial activity in the vicinity. A background scatter of earlier flintwork was also found on the site, as well as Bronze Age pottery and burnt flint spreads in Area B, which may have originated from a previously identified burnt mound to the south of the excavation. A small number of medieval and post-medieval features also indicated land use in the later periods. A further element of the fieldwork was the discovery of preserved peat deposits within hollows in the undulating natural terrain. A sampling programme was undertaken, with analyses ongoing.